TIPTONVILLE, Tenn. — In the far northwest corner of Tennessee, just this side of the Mississippi River, lies a landscape like no other. Reelfoot Lake is less a lake than a system of bayous, creeks and swampland connected by areas of shallow open water. It was created in the winter of 1811-1812 when a series of powerful earthquakes and aftershocks caused 15,000 acres of cypress forest to sink. The waters of the Mississippi River rushed into the depression. To eyewitnesses, the river seemed to be flowing backward.
Reelfoot’s average depth is barely more than five feet, and the stumps of hundreds of thousands of drowned trees lie just beneath its surface. Even today, more than 200 years later, it can be unclear where the lake begins and ends. Even the names of its geographical features suggest a porous relationship between land and water: Big Ronaldson Slough. Horse Island Ditch. Buck Basin. Keystone Pocket.
Hundreds of bald eagles surround the lake, perched in bald cypress trees. (That both are “bald” is a coincidence.) Their yellow feet grip the black branches; their fierce yellow eyes are trained on the lake. They are watching for the slippery shadows of fish moving beneath the dark water. They are watching for the splash of a duck landing on the lake.
I came to Reelfoot Lake State Park because it — along with the Reelfoot National Wildlife Refuge, which covers the northern part of the lake — is the “eagle-watching headquarters for the whole country,” according to Warren Douglas, a park ranger. The lake is a crucial wintering ground for migratory waterfowl, and that makes it prime hunting territory for eagles.
“The colder it is, the more ducks and geese migrate south, and eagles usually follow the snow geese because snow geese are the easiest food to catch,” Mr. Douglas explained. “The colder the winter, the more eagles we have here.”
But the climate is growing warmer now, and this year the waterfowl stayed away until very late in the season. “It’s been so warm this winter we didn’t have one duck on this refuge till the day after duck season ended,” Mr. Douglas said. “Finally an arctic front came through, and within days we went from a thousand ducks here to a million.”
In addition to the migratory eagles, several hundred eagles live at Reelfoot year-round, including about 100 nesting pairs. Bald eagles typically mate for life, and each pair frequently uses the same nest again and again, adding a new layer of branches and sticks each year. A bald eagle’s nest is gigantic, often weighing more than two tons. From a distance, it looks as though someone has hauled a Ford Explorer into the sky and lodged it in the fork of a tree.
It would be hard for me to explain why I so badly wanted to see an eagle on the nest, badly enough that my husband and I have been planning this trip since last summer. I am not particularly inclined to anthropomorphize nature, and I have no sense at all that an eagle on the wing is any more majestic than other large, soaring birds. They are not more beautiful than pelicans flying in formation, or great blue herons gliding over the lake, or vultures riding an air current high in the sky. And I am fully aware that watching a bald eagle pull a fish from the water is not fundamentally different from watching a bluebird pluck a beetle from the grass.
And yet there is something different about this bird, something that made the Second Continental Congress adopt it as the new nation’s emblem — over the objection of Benjamin Franklin. “He is a Bird of bad moral Character,” Franklin wrote in a letter to his daughter. “He does not get his Living honestly. You may have seen him perched on some dead Tree near the River, where, too lazy to fish for himself, he watches the Labour of the Fishing Hawk; and when that diligent Bird has at length taken a Fish, and is bearing it to his Nest for the Support of his Mate and young Ones, the Bald Eagle pursues him and takes it from him.”
Mr. Franklin was not wrong about the bald eagle’s opportunistic nature, but the rest of us love them anyway. At this very minute, all across the web, hundreds of thousands of people are watching wildlife cameras trained on eagles’ nests. Since 2007, a pair of bald eagles in Decorah, Iowa, has reliably produced three eggs a year and raised their eaglets under the watchful eyes of anyone with a modem — more than 370 million viewers so far. When tragedy struck last year — the male disappeared without a trace, leaving the female to raise their chicks alone — the Raptor Resource Project, which maintains the camera, held a Facebook memorial service for the beloved bird. (The female has taken a new mate this year and is laying eggs again.)
For years it looked as though we would be forced to hold a memorial service for the species itself.
Eagles exist at the top of the food chain. If a fish or a duck has poison in its system and the bald eagle eats it, the eagle is eating the poison, too. In the mid-20th century, runoff carrying the insecticide DDT entered so many rivers and streams that eagles were regularly eating contaminated fish, which caused them to lay eggs with shells too thin to support incubation. In addition, eagles often died of poisoning when they ate waterfowl injured by lead shot. And habitat loss often compromised the nesting opportunities of even healthy birds.
When the bald eagle was adopted as our national emblem, an estimated 100,000 pairs were nesting in what later became the lower 48 states. By 1963, only 417 nesting pairs remained.
Thanks in large part to Rachel Carson’s book “Silent Spring,” concerted efforts were finally made to protect the remaining bald-eagle population. DDT was banned for most uses in 1972, and lead shot was phased out in 1991. Those measures were ultimately successful, and the bald eagle was removed from the endangered species list in 2007. It remains protected under a number of federal statutes, including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, which make it illegal to kill or disturb eagles or their nests.
In one way of looking at it, the bald eagles at Reelfoot Lake are returning the favor by providing a critical source of income for the region. Once a thriving community of farmers — upward of 25,000 at midcentury, Mr. Douglas said — it is now home to only 5,000 residents (and another 3,000 inmates at the Northwest Correctional Complex). The fertile land in the Mississippi flood plain is still farmed, but mechanization has replaced human labor. Across Lake County there are ghost churches at crossroads and the corners of fields; once the center of community life, they’ve fallen into ruin, and the county has become one of the poorest in the United States.
Tourism is now its main source of income. Sportsmen keep the rental rooms filled during hunting and fishing seasons. Birders and naturalists arrive during the songbird migrations. And in winter eagle watchers show up from around the world to see a gorgeous bird, its talons extended, snatch a duck from a fallow rice field or sit quietly on a nest at the top of an immense cottonwood tree, its gleaming feathers rustling in the wind.
On our last morning at Reelfoot, our fellow guests at the Dragonfly Inn were speculating at breakfast about why so many people are fascinated by eagles. “I think it’s because they’re so big,” one woman said. “So majestic.” Another woman looked at a preacher who happened to be sitting at the head of the table. “It’s Isaiah, isn’t it?” she asked: “But those who wait for the Lord shall renew their strength, they shall mount up with wings like eagles, they shall run and not be weary, they shall walk and not faint.” He nodded.
Maybe it’s both. To see an eagle on the wing is to see something magnificent, to be reminded of the nature of eternity. But here on earth, these glorious creatures are wholly mortal — as fragile and as temporary as every one of us — and I liked my husband’s theory best of all. “It’s because we almost lost them,” he said. “It’s because we almost lost them, but we learned our lesson just in time. Before it was too late.”
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公开六盒彩料【苏】【小】【暖】【怔】【怔】【愣】【愣】【的】【看】【着】【孟】【凉】【凉】，【既】【不】【说】【话】【也】【没】【什】【么】【示】【意】【的】【动】【作】。【孟】【凉】【凉】【没】【有】【催】【她】，【只】【是】【安】【静】【的】【等】【着】。 【好】【一】【会】【儿】，【苏】【小】【暖】【才】【开】【口】，“【只】【在】【我】【身】【上】【倒】【流】【的】【意】【思】【是】，【可】【以】【让】【我】【的】【身】【体】【恢】【复】【原】【样】？” “【记】【载】【是】【这】【样】。”【孟】【凉】【凉】【停】【顿】【一】【下】，【又】【说】【道】：“【如】【果】【我】【做】【不】【到】，【就】【带】【着】【你】【的】【魂】【魄】【回】【来】。” 【状】【况】【变】【化】【的】【太】【快】，【才】【坚】
【但】【是】，【老】【杨】【小】【看】【了】【赵】【振】【轩】【和】【那】【匹】【马】，【当】【他】【的】【马】【鞭】【还】【没】【有】【抽】【到】【马】【脖】【子】【上】，【反】【而】【被】【赵】【振】【轩】【伸】【手】【抓】【住】【了】【马】【鞭】【的】【鞭】【尾】。 【老】【杨】【心】【想】【你】【这】【不】【是】【给】【自】【己】【找】【罪】【受】【吗】？【肩】【膀】【微】【微】【一】【抖】，【一】【股】【极】【强】【的】【抖】【力】【便】【欲】【把】【赵】【振】【轩】【从】【马】【上】【拉】【下】【来】。 【可】【是】，【等】【了】【一】【下】，【对】【方】【竟】【然】【毫】【无】【反】【应】，【而】【他】【也】【根】【本】【就】【没】【有】【扯】【动】【马】【鞭】。 【老】【杨】【顿】【时】【用】【出】【了】【七】【成】【力】
“【等】【等】——！” 【屁】【股】【刚】【刚】【挨】【到】【地】【上】，【宇】【智】【波】【佐】【助】【就】【猛】【地】【喊】【了】【一】【声】。 【有】【什】【么】【事】【情】【不】【对】！ 【虽】【然】【已】【经】【累】【得】【只】【想】【躺】【在】【一】【边】【好】【好】【休】【息】【一】【下】，【将】【一】【切】【都】【交】【给】【小】【樱】【来】【处】【理】，【但】【佐】【助】【还】【是】【下】【意】【识】【地】【思】【考】【了】【一】【些】【事】【情】…… “【你】【是】……”【他】【扶】【着】【旁】【边】【的】【石】【头】【站】【起】【来】，【瞪】【着】【眼】【睛】【望】【着】【高】【处】【的】【少】【女】，“【不】【对】，【你】【不】【是】【小】【樱】！”
【莫】【云】【抬】【手】【止】【住】【莫】【风】【的】【话】【头】，【继】【续】【说】【道】：“【我】【知】【道】【你】【想】【劝】【我】【什】【么】，【可】【我】【对】【你】【讲】**，【就】【是】【希】【望】【你】【能】【明】【白】，【你】【不】【愿】【对】**【做】【的】【事】【情】，【我】【也】【不】【愿】【对】【翡】【翡】【做】。” 【莫】【风】【听】【不】【得】【莫】【云】【这】【么】【亲】【热】【的】【称】【呼】【一】【个】【暗】【谍】，【她】【撇】【撇】【嘴】，【不】【悦】【的】【冷】【笑】【道】：“【大】【哥】【称】【呼】【的】【好】【亲】【热】……【她】【与】**【怎】【么】【能】【比】？【她】【是】……” 【她】【的】【话】【还】【没】【有】【说】【完】，【就】【在】公开六盒彩料【僻】【静】【小】【院】【内】，【一】【个】【不】【符】【合】【周】【围】【陈】【旧】【环】【境】【的】【幽】【然】【美】【女】【正】【在】【酣】【睡】，【妖】【女】【轻】【声】【呼】【唤】【了】【两】【声】：“【姑】【娘】，【姑】【娘】？”【并】【没】【有】【得】【到】【任】【何】【的】【回】【应】，【出】【手】【在】【对】【方】【细】【腻】【的】【脖】【子】【上】【一】【按】，【内】【力】【探】【入】【对】【方】【体】【内】，【发】【现】【对】【方】【并】【没】【有】【异】【常】，【就】【是】【在】【睡】【觉】，【被】【人】【点】【了】【睡】【穴】。 【显】【然】【是】【在】【做】【美】【梦】【呢】，【表】【情】【很】【甜】【美】。 【有】【人】【把】【自】【己】【引】【到】【这】【里】，【到】【底】【有】【什】【么】【目】
【洛】【阳】【城】， 【熙】【熙】【攘】【攘】【的】【人】【群】， 【堪】【比】【除】【夕】【前】【夜】【的】【盛】【况】。 【可】【仔】【细】【看】【去】， 【这】【街】【上】【的】【人】，【大】【多】【都】【面】【黄】【肌】【瘦】，【双】【眼】【无】【神】，【麻】【木】【地】【走】【着】 【等】【到】【夜】【晚】， 【这】【些】【无】【家】【可】【归】【的】【开】【封】【流】【民】，【就】【在】【这】【周】【围】【的】【巷】【子】【里】，【屋】【檐】【下】，【倚】【着】【铺】【盖】【过】【夜】。 【开】【封】【的】【全】【城】【崩】【溃】，【使】【得】【洛】【阳】【面】【对】【极】【大】【的】【人】【口】【压】【力】！ 【粮】【店】，【药】【铺】，
【站】【在】**【霆】【这】【边】【的】【董】【事】【们】【默】【不】【作】【声】，【但】【是】【站】【在】【林】【金】【凯】【那】【边】【的】【董】【事】【就】【不】【同】【了】。 【米】【董】【冷】【哼】：“【话】【都】【是】【你】【们】【说】【了】【算】，【别】【跟】【我】【们】【扯】【这】【些】。” 【秦】【嘉】【豪】【淡】【笑】：“【这】【不】【是】【扯】，【米】【董】【是】【不】【是】【不】【太】【懂】【我】【们】【法】【律】【问】【题】？” 【米】【董】【嗤】【笑】：“【笑】【话】，【我】【能】【坐】【在】【这】【里】，【靠】【的】【是】【实】【力】，【而】【不】【是】【法】【律】。” 【秦】【嘉】【豪】【眸】【光】【一】【沉】：“【这】【么】【说】，【米】【董】
【邢】【铭】【赶】【到】【时】【候】【已】【经】【是】【第】【二】【天】【晚】【上】，**【乐】【的】【伤】【心】【劲】【已】【经】【过】【去】，【她】【相】【对】【平】【静】【的】【接】【受】【了】【现】【实】，【毕】【竟】【眼】【泪】【都】【流】【干】【了】，【再】【伤】【心】【也】【不】【过】【埋】【在】【心】【里】。 【钱】【母】【的】【丧】【事】【办】【得】【很】【热】【闹】，【事】【实】【上】【因】【为】【年】【纪】【大】【了】，【早】【在】【十】【年】【之】【前】【钱】【父】【就】【为】【自】【己】【和】【钱】【母】【准】【备】【好】【丧】【事】【要】【用】【的】【棺】【材】【和】【寿】【衣】【等】【用】【品】。 【在】【一】【应】【事】【务】【俱】【全】【的】【情】【况】【下】，【整】【个】【丧】【事】【也】【可】【以】【不】【紧】